Professor at Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, Qatar, visiting professor in the War Studies Department of King’s College London, and Senior Fellow at the New America Foundation in Washington DC. He has a BA in history and a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Cambridge.
1986-1998 he worked as a British journalist, mainly in the former Soviet Union and South Asia. During this period he covered the anti-Soviet war in Afghanistan, the Chechen war of 1994-96 and other conflicts. In 1998-2000 he edited Strategic Comments at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. 2000-2005 he was Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington DC.
- "Chechnya: Tombstone of Russian Power?", Yale University Press 1998,
- "Ukraine and Russia: A Fraternal Rivalry", USIP 1999,
- "The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence", Yale University Press 1993,
- "Pakistan: A Hard Country", Penguin 2011 (selected by the Daily Telegraph as one of the '2011 Books of Year'),
- "America Right or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism", 2012.