Soviet and Russian politician, economist.
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR (1990), one of the leaders of the Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin electoral bloc (1993). Founder of a public association (since 1995) and leader of the Yabloko political party (since 1993), head of Yabloko (1993–2008). The head of the Yabloko faction in the State Duma of Russia of the I, II and III convocations. The head of the Yabloko faction in the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg V convocation. Candidate for the post of President of the Russian Federation in the elections of 1996, 2000 and 2018. Doctor of Economic Sciences.