Founder and first chairman of the Yabloko party. Doctor of Economics, Professor at the Higher School of Economics
Soviet and Russian politician, economist. Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers (1990), one of the leaders of the Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin electoral bloc (1993). Leader of the Yabloko political party since 1993, head of Yabloko (1993–2008). The head of the Yabloko faction in the State Duma of Russia. The head of the Yabloko faction in the Legislative Assembly of St. Petersburg. Candidate for the post of President of the Russian Federation in the elections of 1996, 2000 and 2018. Doctor of Economic Sciences.