Executive Summary

The world needs to work together to face many profound challenges, ranging from economic and political spheres and extending far beyond. At the root of many of these problems is the human race’s lack of sensibility and maturity. Given our current moment in history, when human beings might either slip into the path of self-destruction or stand up to thrive, we cannot afford to not engage in a genuine dialogue of civilisations – the only path toward finding solutions to the crisis of humanity. Through examining major world civilisations, this study is an effort to explore the question: What are the true meanings of humanity’s innate ethical origins and internal subjectivity in which human spirituality is situated, cultivated, and developed? What are practical ways for humans to unfold the potential in each of our original existence, that would allow us to have a harmonious and flourishing spiritual life together?

This paper examines the transformation of a person, via one’s own deliberate effort, from a mere ‘individual’, to a ‘subject’. It presents a dilemma between choosing the position of weak or passive subjectivity, or a position of strong or positive subjectivity, and proposes a third alternative – a dialogical subjectivity – as a solution. The self-motivated establishment of ‘dialogical subjectivity’ on the one hand opens up one’s subjectivity to the external world, and on the other hand internalises the world into one’s subjectivity. The former is an infinite expansion of the objective world in front of the subject, while the latter is an unending development of the subject’s realm of meaning. The conclusion is that reaching the realm of co-humanity among different civilisations is the way-out of humanity’s crisis. Through the practical and necessary social activity of human subjects, human existence – its meaning and value – can finally be actualised.

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