In the year 2011, the Middle East entered a convoluted new phase of political and economic turmoil. This has led to a number of prominent Arab political leaders expending their authority among local populations, and consequently being severely isolated. This outcome was generated by mass discontent, which resulted in a dramatic rhetorical shift and a drastic decline in the Middle East. The overall episode came to be referred to as the Arab Spring.

In other words, these events can be regarded as the first stage in the manifestation of a general crisis in the Middle East, subsequently intensified by the West’s intervention. This was followed by a sharp degradation in the socio-economic climate and the intensification of social, political, and economic processes in a number of the region’s key countries.

The second stage of the Arab Spring can be viewed as the organisation and rise of ISIS, the epitome of the tragic new occurrences in the Arab world. The consolidation of ISIS in territory captured across Syria and Iraq became the premise for reformatting local political and socio-economic structures and for destructive trends which have in turn worn away the means of production and totally destabilised the entire region’s political situation.

The views and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the original author(s) and do not necessarily represent or reflect the views and opinions of the Dialogue of Civilizations Research Institute, its co-founders, or its staff members

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Alexander O. Filonik
Alexander O. Filonik, Ph.D. (economics), graduated from the Moscow State University (Institute of Oriental Languages) in 1967. Since then, he has been the senior researcher at the Institute of Oriental Studies (Russian Academy of Sciences). He is the author of many monographs on the social and economic problems of various Arab countries, and numerous other articles.
Vladimir A. Isaev
Vladimir A. Isaev, Dr.Sc. (economics), graduated from the Moscow State University (Institute of Asian and African studies) in 1971. After that he worked at the Institute of Oriental Studies (Russian Academy of Sciences) until 2011, and is now a professor at the Institute of Asian and African studies (MSU). He is the author of many monographs on the social and economic problems of various Arab countries, and numerous other articles.