An issue of mutual relationships between society and the state at the background of simultaneous globalization and fragmentation of social communities is analyzed in the paper. Besides that, it is argued that in order to attain progressive evolution of mankind, it is necessary to preserve and advance cultural identity. There are no universal systems of social development, it is claimed. Each nation is capable to determine and build its own national system of social relationships – a system that is based on taking into account the civilizational, cultural and geographical peculiarities, as well as the level of social and economic development. Other crucial points suggested by the author are impossibility to resolve the present-day problems without upgrading the role of nation states, the need for inter-civilizational dialogue where the main principle is balance of interests both of individual nation states and the entire world community.