Our world is at a dangerous cross-roads. The post-World War Two settlement is dissolving. Governments are having to learn how to adjust to a multi-polar world. We need to avoid repetition of the autarky that existed in the nineteenth century, which fostered a plethora of nation-states vying for power and leading, ultimately, to a world at war. A new statecraft is needed, one that is structured to facilitate global commerce on sustainable terms, while enriching cultural diversity. To achieve these outcomes, the new relationships need to be based on inclusive peace and prosperity. And yet, on the strength of the record of political failure, a pessimistic prognosis for the future is warranted. Pessimism is justified if it provides the motivation for asking the fundamental questions.